Identify any problems, improvement and conducting an evaluation of the ability of the policy to address the issues.

Identify any problems, improvement and conducting an evaluation of the ability of the policy to address the issues.



Policies in all areas of life including healthcare keep changing through years to accommodate for new needs as well as to come up with newer ideas that serve the public better. In America, healthcare is one of the biggest public services provided for by the government. It is meant to ensure that all people within the united stated have access to medical treatment (Milstead, 2011). Therefore, making new or improving current healthcare policies is quite important and requires a lot of care to ensure access to all. There are many issues to consider while making policies. Thus, it is very important to have a clear understanding of the stages involved in making a policy. The stages of policymaking are in place to ensure that information is gathered, scrutinized and verified before any idea is turned into a policy. The policy process is generally composed of three strategies that are most important, which are the formulation stage, legislative stage and the implementation stage. The formulation stage is concerned with gathering ides and concepts necessary for the policy. Legislative stage is involved in deliberating and discussing the ideas and policies. Finally, the implementation stage is where the findings or ideas are put into place to start acting as a policy. These stages ensure that the right channel is followed in making new policies that are concerned with the wellness of all people without favoring some (Ivanov & Blue, 2008).

Formulation Stage

This is usually the first stage of the policy process in healthcare, which is responsible creation of a formal detail of the concepts agreed. This is the stage in which extensive research concerning the ideas and concepts that are soon to become a policy. Research is carried out by different individuals, institutions and interview groups as well as professionals with vast of experience and knowledge in healthcare. The research includes both primary and secondary researches from the various sources. Some of the credible individuals capable of carrying out a research in healthcare are the professionals within this such as nurses, clinicians, administrators and other individuals within healthcare provision.

The formulation stage involves several things as stated in the previous paragraph. Here I look at them I deeper details and what each process within formulation means. The first activity is identifying the problem that needs to be solved (Abood, 2007). Healthcare policies as mentioned are specific and address certain population. For instance, if it is a healthcare policy for the disabled, the problem facing this people in terms of healthcare has to be researched. The second activity is developing of specific objectives that are identified from the problem/s identified. There has to be a goal or desired destination of the issue identified. This poses a challenge as well since having specific goals means determining time as well (Ivanov & Blue, 2008).

The following stage is concerned with the development of several options and process of choosing. In any policy formulation, making the right choices is what determines a successful policy. The formulators have to choose between different options that could address the issue at hand. Each choice has its impact, and a selection needs to be quite keen since some could have disastrous impacts. The next process of formulation is designing a strategy of implementation to e followed. An implementation strategy is designed at this stage to ensure there are no problems at the other stages when it would be harder for them to reconsider. The following action is the action instruments that involve three information gathering, information analysis and consultation. This can happen at any activity in the formulation process. Information might continue to be needed, requiring more gathering of information. An analysis will entail going back to double check and monitor the policy formulated. On the other hand, consultation involves getting views from the experts on issues such a how the policy relates to other issues that could affect it as well to get the opinion of the stakeholders.

Legislative Stage

The legislative stage is where deliberations, discussions, debating, and justifications as well as evaluations of what has already been agreed upon are made. In this stage, the parties involved come together to discuss no their findings in the formulation stage. This stage is meant for identifying any problems, improvement and conducting an evaluation of the ability of the policy to address the issues. All issues including implementation are discussed in this stage before it passes for implementation. The main purpose of the legislative stage is ensuing that one can proceed to the implementation stage without doubts since everything is justified. It is at this stage that the parties and individuals involved pass the developed policy into a lawful bill to be followed by implementation (Abood, 2007).

The legislative process involves political personnel, who are responsible for passing the proposed policy into a law. This is done by the congress that is responsible for passing legislations into law. After the formulation stage, the proposed bill is taken to congress for deliberations. The congress evaluates the ability of the policy to serve the people as it suggests. To become a law, it goes through several phases that include introduction to the house, referring the policy to a committee, taken to floor consideration; it is debated upon and finally passed if no amendments are required. Upon its passing, it becomes law and goes to the implementation stage.

Implementation Stage

Implementation is the last stage in the policy process. After professionals and administrators as well as organizational institutions have finished with policy formulation and legislation, the implementation stage comes to put the policy into action. This is the stage that the ideas and concepts become a policy. Lack of proper implementation would mean the policy would fail to serve its purpose. The implementation stage is quite sensitive since it determines the success of what has been done in the other stages. It involves several activities. The agencies and departments within the health care are held responsible by the government for carrying out the implementation of the policy. The main purpose of this stage is putting into action the policy that is already deliberated in the previous stage (Milstead, 2011).

The administrative agencies within healthcare are served with this responsibility since they are closer to the people than other groups since they are involved in daily activities. The activities involved in the implementation stage are such as creation of new organizations, departments, bureaus, and agencies to be involved in the implementation process. After the forming of such groups, each of them is issued with responsibilities meant to accomplish the implementation. To implement, the policy laws and the formed organizations must turn the laws into operational tasks that can be performed practically within the healthcare. Some of the tasks involved spending money, hiring personnel drawing contracts.

The implementation is a process that takes quite sometime before it can be operational. Some of the activities such as changing the laws enacted in the legislative stage takes time considering new organizations may have to be made. Implementation is not a clear-cut process. Rather, it is a process affected by several factors. It requires a lot of time and resources as well. Implementation has to be well planned to make sure the policy becomes successful.


In healthcare, policies could be targeted at a certain population or to the public to ensure better provision and access to the service. However, coming up or improving an existing policy is one of the most challenging tasks for any department. Healthcare policies are proposed by professionals within the field who understand what healthcare entail. The three stages serve their purpose in ensuring a better policy. However, care and intelligence is crucial at all stages to ensure success. The formulation stage proves to be quite challenging since a lot of research is required. Legislative stage is responsible for discussing and justifying the ideas brought in by the formulation. Thus, formulations needs to be properly done to ensure it passes this stage. Implementation being the last one is also challenging, and requires time and resources. This is the practical part of the policy (Ivanov & Blue, 2008).


Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12. Retrieved from

Ivanov, L.L. & Blue, C.L. (2008). Public Health Nursing: Leadership, Policy, & Practice. New York, N.Y: Cengage Learning.

Milstead, J.A. (2011). Health Policy and Politics: A Nurse’s Guide. New York, N.Y: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.