Differentiate between real and spurious associations in observational studies.1. Describe a frequent sequence of study designs which is used to address questions of etiology in community health today.
2. Describe the guidelines for causation published by the U.S. Surgeon General.
3. Differentiate between real and spurious associations in observational studies. Provide at least one example of each type of association.
4. One of the most interesting epidemiological findings of recent years has been the association shown between Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal or gastric ulcers. Prior to the research on H. pylori, stress and lifestyle factors (such as smoking and alcohol consumption) were considered to be the primary causes of such ulcers. Summarize the evidence suggesting H. Pylori as a causative agent of ulcers.