Availability of Birth Control in Schools
To prepare for this discussion, read Lecture 2.
Adolescent Sexual Activity Rates: Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors that can result in unintended health outcomes. For example, among U.S. high school students surveyed in 20151 41% have had sexual intercourse. 30% have had sexual intercourse during the previous 3 months, and, of these 43% did not use a condom the last time they had sex. 14% did not use any method to prevent pregnancy. 21% drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse. Only 10% of sexually experienced students have ever been tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).* CDC data show that lesbian, gay, and bisexual high school students are at substantial risk for serious health outcomes(https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/smy.htm). Sexual risk behaviors place teens at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended pregnancy: Young people (aged 13-24) accounted for an estimated 22% of all new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2015.2 Among young people (aged 13-24) diagnosed with HIV in 2015, 81% were gay and bisexual males.2 Half of the nearly 20 million new STDs reported each year were among young people, between the ages of 15 to 24.3 Nearly 230,000 babies were born to teen girls aged 15–19 years in 2015.4 To reduce sexual risk behaviors and related health problems among youth, schools and other youth-serving organizations can help young people adopt lifelong attitudes and behaviors that support their health and well-being—including behaviors that reduce their risk for HIV(https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/default.html), other STDs, and unintended pregnancy(https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/index.htm). The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be educated about HIV. This includes knowing how HIV is transmitted and prevented, and knowing which behaviors place individuals at greatest risk for infection. HIV awareness and education(https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/hecat/pdf/hecat_module_sh.pdf) should be universally integrated into all educational environments. CDC recommends(https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/guidelines/index.html) all adolescents and adults 13-64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine medical care.
Additional Discussion Resources: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/sexualbehaviors/
Discussion Questions: Should high schools be able to dispense contraceptives to students? Why or why not? What cognitive and emotional developmental issues are at play when tweens and teens make the decision to have sex? Should school address these issues if they are going to give our contraceptives? If so how should they do this? What role should parents play in sex education, including pregnancy and HIV? Support your answer with a solution to the societal problem.