Quantitative analysis of retinol and choroidal microvascular changes in patients with diabetes

Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice

Appendix E

Research Evidence Appraisal Tool


Evidence level and quality rating:


Level II quality B (Good evidence)




Article title: Quantitative analysis of retinol and choroidal microvascular changes in patients with diabetes


Number: (2018)8:12146


Author(s): Nirinae Kim, Seung Young Choi and Young-Hoon Park


Publication date: 14 August 2018


Journal: Scientific reports


Setting: St. Mary’s Hospital in Korea


Sample: 174 eyes


Does this evidence address my EBP question? Yes

☐No-Do not proceed with appraisal of this evidence


Is this study:

QuaNtitative (collection, analysis, and reporting of numerical data) Measurable data (how many; how much; or how often) used to formulate facts, uncover patterns in research, and generalize results from a larger sample population; provides observed effects of a program, problem, or condition, measured precisely, rather than through researcher interpretation of data. Common methods are surveys, face-to-face structured interviews, observations, and reviews of records or documents. Statistical tests are used in data analysis.

Go to Section I: QuaNtitative

☐QuaLitative (collection, analysis, and reporting of narrative data) Rich narrative documents are used for uncovering themes; describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it. Common methods are focus groups, individual interviews (unstructured or semi structured), and participation/observations. Sample sizes are small and are determined when data saturation is achieved. Data saturation is reached when the researcher identifies that no new themes emerge and redundancy is occurring. Synthesis is used in data analysis. Often a starting point for studies when little research exists; may use results to design empirical studies. The researcher describes, analyzes, and interprets reports, descriptions, and observations from participants.

Go to Section II: QuaLitative

☐Mixed methods (results reported both numerically and narratively) Both quaNtitative and quaLitative methods are used in the study design. Using both approaches, in combination, provides a better understanding of research problems than using either approach alone. Sample sizes vary based on methods used. Data collection involves collecting and analyzing both quaNtitative and quaLitative data in a single study or series of studies. Interpretation is continual and can influence stages in the research process. Go to Section III: Mixed Methods

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