Treatment Options for Stroke Pathophysiology

Heart disease remains the number one cause of death in the U.S. but  there has been amazing progress in how we treat it through lifestyle  changes, medications, and surgery. Complications for cardiac surgery can  include acute kidney injury. Treatment options can include the use of  anti-inflammatory drugs, for example dexamethasone, to prevent these  complications. For your discussion post:

  • Discuss how acute kidney injury can be a complication of cardiac surgery.
  • Describe long term effects of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs

Module 04 Written Assignment – Advances in Treatment

Treatment options for acute and chronic diseases continue to advance  in efforts to cure diseases or manage symptoms and improve quality of  life. While working in healthcare, it is important to be able to  research treatment options to understand the different treatments or  questions patients may need to consider.

Laura Creech


Module 5








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The kidneys and heart are closely linked. The unfortunate link of

acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is well known. Acute kidney

injury can lead to higher mortality rates and longer stay in the ICU.

There isn’t a single determining factor of what causes the kidney injury

after cardiac surgery but preexisting co morbidities such as prior

kidney disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure have been indicators

of patients that have experienced more severe complications. Some

medications such as diuretics and anti-inflammatory medications are also

indications of issues that may occur after surgery.

Long term side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) can be

fatigue, fluid retention, chest pain, severe stomach pain, unusual

weight gain, and bloody/cloudy urine. NSAID use increases the risk of

peptic ulcer disease, acute renal failure, and stroke. NSAIDs can also

increase the probability of heart disease. It is not recommended to take

 anti-inflammatory medications for longer than 10 days without

consulting with a doctor.


Ortega-Loubon, C., Fernández-Molina, M., Carrascal-Hinojal, Y.,

& Fulquet-Carreras, E. (2016). Cardiac surgery-associated acute

kidney injury. Annals of cardiac anaesthesia, 19(4), 687–698.

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